History of Pasta
The official origin of pasta is unclear. Records trace pasta back to fourth century B.C. and it had been said that the Greek God Vulcan created the first spaghetti maker.
Pasta did not appear commercially in the United States until 1848. The first pasta factory was built in Brooklyn, New York by a Frenchman who spread spaghetti strands on the roof to dry in the sun. U.S. pasta production increased during World War I when all Italian imports were cut off and its popularity in the United States has grown ever since.
Pasta Shapes, Sizes and Uses
"Pasta," an Italian word meaning "paste," describes the various shapes and sizes of products made with flour and water. There are more than 600 shapes of pasta worldwide, ranging from the tiny bead like North African couscous, Greek orzo and German spaetzle to the larger, ingredient-filled Italian ravioli, Asian wontons and Polish pierogis.
Pasta products may be divided into two types; dried or commercial and fresh. Pasta may also be categorized by shape:
- Long goods such as spaghetti, fettuccine or linguine.
- Short goods, including elbows, rotini, penne and ziti.
- Specialty products, such as shells, bow ties and lasagna.
Following is a guide to choosing a type of pasta based on the accompanying sauce:
- Thin delicate pasta should be served with light, thin sauces.
- Thicker shapes work well with heavier sauces.
- Pasta shapes with holes or ridges are best for chunkier sauces. Ridges hold sauce better.
The Wheat Behind the Pasta
Much of the world's pasta is made from durum wheat flour. Durum is the hardest of the six classes of wheat grown in the United States and North Dakota leads the country in Durum production. Durum is also grown in South Dakota, Montana and Southern California.
- Durum is considered the gold standard for pasta production; the wheat kernel's density and high protein and gluten content result in firm pasta with consistent cooking quality and golden color.
- The Durum wheat kernel is milled into different types of flour including Durum, Semolina and Farina flours. Each of these flours is best suited for certain types of pasta.
Countries around the world import U.S. Durum wheat to make their preferred form of pasta. Italy followed by Tunisia, Venezuela and Nigeria were the top importers of U.S. durum wheat in 2007.
Before you begin cooking, read on to learn about pasta's role in each of these cuisines.
- In Italy, pasta is worthy of its own course. The traditional, three-course Italian meal consists of antipasti (hors d'oeuvres), primo (pasta or risotto) and secondo (meat or fish, possibly accompanied by vegetables).
- "Fideo" is the Spanish word for noodles or pasta and, in Mexico, fideo is commonly used in soup or "sopa" or fried and eaten as a snack.
- Couscous is the national dish of the North African countries of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. In addition to fish, vegetables and legumes, featured regional accompaniments include tomatoes in Algeria, saffron in Morocco and harissa, a hot salsa, in Tunisia.
- Russians showcase heavier, richer pasta dishes with meats, vegetables and cream-based sauces all of which are present in their signature stroganoff.
- Mediterranean dishes pair pasta with heart-healthy olive oil, vegetables and fish. In the Mediterranean country of Greece, pasta is called "zymarika."
Pasta is as nutritious as it is delicious. It is low in fat and sodium, has no cholesterol and contains complex carbohydrates, which can provide longer lasting energy and help you to feel fuller longer.
Complex carbohydrates are starches that require more time to digest than simple carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates are the body's best source of energy because they are burned in a constant, time-released manner.
Fiber is a general term for the indigestible part of plant foods. It provides almost no energy or calories, yet is an important part of a healthy diet. There are two types of dietary fiber: insoluble and soluble.
- White flour products contain some soluble fiber, which has been shown to lower blood cholesterol levels when eaten as part of a low-fat diet.
- Whole-wheat products and bran are sources of insoluble fiber, which acts as a bulk producer to help reduce the risk of constipation and diverticular disease, and help relieve hemorrhoids. Foods containing insoluble fiber may also reduce the risk of colon cancer, and according to recent studies, may help reduce the risk of breast cancer.
Folic acid is a B vitamin that has been shown to protect against neural tube defects such as spina bifida (a birth defect in which the spinal cord is not completely encased in bone) and anencephaly (a fatal defect in which part of the brain never develops).
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend five to ten ounces of grain foods such as bread, cereal, rice and pasta daily (depending on age, gender and activity level), with half of them coming from whole-grain foods. One serving or ounce-equivalent equals 1/2 cup of cooked pasta or about 2.5 ounces.
Switch to tomato or vegetable-based sauce for guilt-free pasta. A half-cup of pasta adds another serving to your 6 to 11 for the day in the grain group. Alternatively, spice up spaghetti with salsa and chopped green chilies for a Southwestern flair on a powerful meal ready in minutes.
When you order pasta at an Italian restaurant, your healthiest sauce choices are marinara, primavera, and red or white clam sauce. Pasta portions at restaurants are generally way oversized -- order pasta from the appetizer section of the menu to control your portion. Another tip: Share entrees to control portion size. Eat family style and order one or two fewer dishes than the number of people at the table.
National Pasta Month, which occurs annually in October, was created by the National Pasta Association. The purpose is to educate people about the benefits of pasta and celebrate its presence in the United States and around the world.
World Pasta Day occurs each year on October 25th to honor pasta as a global food, consumed in all five continents, and increase awareness of its nutritional benefits. It was established at the first World Pasta Congress held on October 25, 1995 in Rome, Italy.
A Byte of Pasta History
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