Scientists have divided these nutrients into two groups -- major and trace minerals -- depending on how much of the mineral is in your body.
Seven Minerals Your Body Cannot Do Without
The major minerals stand out from others simply because there are more of them in your body. If you could remove all your body's minerals and place them on a scale, they would weight about five pounds. Almost four pounds of that would be calcium and phosphorus, the two most common major minerals. The five other major minerals would make up most of the remaining pound.
By far the most abundant mineral in your body, calcium makes your bones and teeth strong and hard. Without it, they would be as floppy as your ears! Calcium does not just stay trapped in your skeleton, though. Small amounts of it travel into your blood. There, it is essential for steadying your blood pressure and helping your muscles contract. One rather important muscle -- your heart -- needs calcium to keep pumping. Calcium is critical during childhood if you want to have strong bones as an adult. But no matter how old you are, it is never too late to get more of this important mineral.
The second-most plentiful mineral in your body works hand-in-hand with calcium to build and maintain strong bones and teeth. Phosphorusis a crucial ingredient in DNA and cell membranes and helps make healthy new cells all over your body. To top it off, phosphorus helps turn your food into energy.
Your stomach would be useless without this element. Chloride is a main ingredient in your digestive stomach acids. It also helps to assure that all of your body's cells get their fair share of nutrients -- no small job at all.
This is the least common major mineral in your body, but that does not hold magnesium back. First, it helps keep your bones and teeth healthy, then it makes sure calcium, potassium, vitamin D, and proteins do their jobs. When you flex your muscles, you need magnesium to help them relax again. Recently, experts even found a connection between magnesium and heart health. A deficiency of the mineral could increase your risk of heart attack and high blood pressure.
Keeping your blood pressure steady, maintaining your heartbeat, balancing water in your cells and assuring your muscles and nerves work properly are a few of potassium's many important jobs. Like magnesium, this mineral might be essential for heart health.
This mineral usually gets a bad rap because it is the main element in salt. But your body needs sodium to maintain its balance of fluids. Nowadays, most people try to limit their salt, or sodium, intake for health reasons. Those who are "salt-sensitive" are especially at risk for heart disease. But it would benefit everyone to lower their daily sodium intake to 2,400 milligrams or less.
This mineral is a number one supporting actor. It does not do much on its own, but it is part of other star nutrients like thiamin and protein. Sulfur is especially important in proteins because it gives them shape and durability. Your body's roughest proteins -- in your hair, nails and skin -- have the highest amounts of sulfur.
Trace Minerals: Small, Powerful Protectors
By definition, each trace mineral makes up only a tiny percentage of your total body weight -- less than one-twentieth of a percent, to be exact. But their small amounts only make them more valuable. They carry out enormous tasks that are as important as the jobs of any of the more common nutrients.
Your thyroid gland uses Iodine to make its hormones. These compounds control your body temperature, regulating the metabolism of every major organ. A lack of iodine can wreak havoc with your body and cause a condition called goiter.
Without a teaspoon of this mineral in your body, you could not breathe. Iron makes up hemoglobin and myoglobin, two compounds that carry oxygen throughout your blood and your muscles. No wonder you feel weak and listless when you are iron deficient.
Now famous for preventing cancer, selenium also carries out important daily tasks in your body. It helps your thyroid use iodine, for instance, and it's important for a healthy immune system. A deficiency in selenium can cause heart and thyroid disease.
The mineral zinc has many jobs. Cleaning up free radicals, building new cells, and producing energy from other nutrients are just three. A zinc deficiency can be dangerous, leading to digestion problems and deficiencies in other nutrients.
The Mighty Five
Chromium, copper, fluoride, manganese, and molybdenum are five trace minerals you will find in common foods and drinks. They are responsible for everything from strong teeth (fluoride) to your blood-sugar level (chromium). They are so important that nutritionists have set daily requirements for each of them to make sure you get enough.
Experts are also investigating a handful of other minerals to see how essential they are to your body. Boron is one that seems promising as an important ingredient in bone and joint health.
When Too Much is Toxic
In larger amounts, minerals become more hazardous than healthy. So talk with your doctor before taking mineral supplements such as iron and selenium.
You also need to be careful with over-the-counter remedies like antacids. They contain magnesium, and an overdose can lead to diarrhea and even kidney damage. Zinc lozenges for cold therapy can also be dangerous if you take too many.
Even soft drinks and convenience foods can be a problem because of their high phosphorus content. Too much phosphorus can interfere with your body's ability to absorb and use calcium. Like everything else, follow moderation when trying to meet your daily mineral requirements. If you eat a balanced diet, you won't ever have to worry about getting too much.
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